• GI Infections2C_5
  • Surgical Infections
  • Typhoid and Paratyphoid
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases
  • Trichomoniasis/ Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Protozoal Infections (Amebiasis/ Giardasis)

GI Infections

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation (“-itis”) of the gastrointestinal tract that involves both the stomach (“gastro”-) and the small intestine (“entero”-), resulting in some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and cramping.

Surgical Infections

Any superficial infection that occurs at the site of a surgical incision
Surgical site infection classes:

  • Clean wound: 75% of all surgery; nontraumatic wound; noninflamed; no break in 2C_5technique; no entry into the GI, GU, respiratory tracts, or oropharynx; infection rate < 5%, usually ±1%
  • Clean-contaminated wound: minimal break in surgical technique; infection rate < 10%
  • Contaminated wound: open, fresh, traumatic wound from relatively clean source, or major break in surgical technique; infection rate < 20%
  • Dirty and/or infected wound: with devitalized and/or necrotic tissue; infection rate 30–40%

Typhoid and Paratyphoid

Typhoid fever: also known as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi. The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever or pythogenic fever

Paratyphoid fevers: are a group of enteric illnesses caused by serotypic strains of the Salmonella genus of bacteria, S. Paratyphi. The paratyphoid bears similarities with typhoid fever, and the two are referred to by the common name enteric fever. Here are three serovars of the species of S. enterica that cause paratyphoid: S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (S. schottmuelleri and S. pullorum), and S. Paratyphi C (S. hirschfeldii).

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include painful urination and either frequent urination or urge to urinate (or both), while those of pyelonephritis include fever and flank pain in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a term for inflammation of the uterus, 2C_5fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. This can lead to infertility. Symptoms includes fever, cervical motion tenderness, lower abdominal pain, new or different discharge, painful intercourse, or irregular menstrual bleeding.

Trichomoniasis/ Bacterial Vaginosis

Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as “trich”, is a common cause of vaginitis. It is a sexually transmitted disease, and is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis producing mechanical stress on host cells and then ingesting cell fragments after cell death. Trichomoniasis is primarily an infection of the urogenital tract; the most common site of infection is the urethra and the vagina in women.

Typically, only women experience symptoms associated with Trichomonas infection. Symptoms include inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), urethra (urethritis), and vagina (vaginitis) which produce an itching or burning sensation

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) or less commonly vaginal bacteriosis is a disease of the vagina caused by bacteria. BV can be asymptomatic in almost half of affected women, however the most common symptom of BV is an abnormal homogeneous off-white vaginal discharge (especially after vaginal intercourse) that may be accompanied by an unpleasant (usually fishy) smell. This malodorous discharge coats the walls of the vagina, and is usually without significant irritation, pain, or erythema (redness), although mild itching can sometimes occur. By contrast, the normal vaginal discharge will vary in consistency and amount throughout the menstrual cycle and is at its clearest at ovulation – about 2 weeks before the period starts.

Protozoal Infections


Amoebiasis, or Amebiasis, refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica . A gastrointestinal infection that may or may not be symptomatic and can remain latent in an infected person for several years, amoebiasis is estimated to cause 70,000 deaths per year world wide. Symptoms can range from mild diarrhea to dysentery with blood and mucus in the stool. E. histolytica is usually a commensal organism.


Giardiasis — popularly known as beaver fever — is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis). The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans, infecting approximately 200 million people worldwide

Symptoms include loss of appetite, fever, explosive diarrhea, hematuria (blood in urine), loose or watery stool, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting (uncommon), bloating, flatulence, and burping (often sulphurous)